April 12, 1861 the American Civil War begins

On April 12, 1861 President Abraham Lincoln declared war between the Union and Confederate states.

At the start of the war it is estimated there were four million enslaved in 15 states and territories, “owned” by 52,128 slaveholders.
Estimates in some states of enslaved persons: Virginia: 490,865; Maryland: 87,189; Washington: 3,181; Delaware: 1,798; Nebraska: 15; Kansas: 2.

It is also estimated there were about 400,000 free African Americans.

The War ended on April 9, 1865.