Jacob Francis fought discrimination by suing two bar owners who refused to serve him. He was not successful in April 1860, but in July 1862 the outcome of his second case affected liquor service establishments and practices generally.
Gazette, April 23, 1860. “Refusing Drinks to Colored Men – Jacob Francis vs. Milotich”. In this case involving the refusal of Milotich to serve Jacob Francis a drink, Judge Cameron classified the saloon as an inn and ruled that since Mr. Francis was not a guest, he was not entitled to be served. Therefore, “no injuries were sustained” by Francis nor could “damages be given”.
Colonist, June 26, 1862. “Wouldn’t Let Him Drink”. Notice is given that Jacob Francis had a summons served on the proprietor of the Bank Exchange, Mr. Lovett, who refused to give Francis a drink in his saloon. Evidence is heard in court over the next few weeks.
Colonist, July 5, 1862. “Shall a Colored Man Drink at a White Man’s Bar” In the conclusion of the case Francis v. Lovett, the magistrate ruled that any barkeeper refusing service to Black men would not be given a license or would be find five pounds sterling and their license would not be renewed.