January 31, 1865: The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution abolishing slavery is signed.

The Emancipation Proclamation, declared by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863 during the American Civil War, only freed slaves held in confederate states. Only through this Thirteenth Amendment did emancipation become national policy. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.  It was signed by  Abraham Lincoln on February 1, 1865.
JUNETEENTH: Texas was the last Confederate territory reached by the Union army, on June 19, 1865.