BC Black History Awareness Society (BCBHAS)

“A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots” - Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr.

EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONS

This section is under construction:

Still to come navigation and external links.

General information about the employment of Blacks in the province from their arrival in 1858 to more contemporary times is provided in Part 1.  The majority of the information pertains to the early Black settlers since their occupations have been well documented.  While the occupations of some contemporary Black individuals may be known privately, only a small number – because of outstanding or unique achievements – have been included. 

In addition to the General Information,  the occupations included in Part 1 are those from A to L inclusive including:  Athletes, Barbers, Brickmakers, Bricklayers, Businesses, Carpenters, Coalmen, Cooks, Creative Artists, Dressmakers, Dentist, Farmers, Gardeners, Grocers, Hunters, Lawyers

The occupations in this section, Part 2, includes: Nurses, Midwives, Ministers, Painters, Plasterers, Policeman, Prospectors/Miners, Municipal Workers, Road Construction Workers, Storeowners, Shopkeepers, Tailors, Teachers, Transportation Workers, Writers/Journalists.

 

 

MACHINISTS

CLIFFORD LESLIE ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Times, April 13, 1966, p. 13.

“Member of Pioneering Family Clifford Alexander Dies at 72.

In this article announcing the death of Clifford Alexander, he is reported as being a machinist.

MINISTERS/MINISTRY

More detailed information can be found in the section Church and Religious Life

CHARLES ALEXANDER

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing. , op.cit. , 2nd edition p. 128.

Kilian notes that for some years the Shady Creek Church, which Alexander helped to build, had no regular minister, but Alexander often preached there.

MALINDA THORNE

Malinda Thorne, an ordained African Methodist Episcopalian Zion Church elder, came to Vancouver in 1957.  She runs God’s Rescue Mission and Miracle Centre where clients can obtain food and clothing as well as counselling from Rev. Thorne.  She is frequently a guest preacher at United and Baptist churches and has been described as “part preacher, part social worker, part counsellor.”

Newspapers

Province, August 7, 1972.

“Malinda heading uptown but only for a short stand.”

Province, June 30, 1973, p. 12.

“Malinda Sounds Uptown”.

Sun, September 26, 1970, p. 16.

“Tiny Mission run by a woman with a large heart”.

Sun, March 11, 1978, p. B5

“Malinda tosses a lifeline to any soul in need.”

MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS/SERVICES

C.W. BROWN

Winks, R. The Blacks in Canada, op.cit.  p. 101

The author reports C.W. Brown is a janitor who in 1902 organised a Vancouver chapter of the Colored National Emigration Association, a back-to-Africa group.

Pilton, J. Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  Op.cit.  pp. 208-213.

Pilton lists the names and occupations of the following men:

CORNELIUS CHARITY – Bootmaker

SAMUEL RAMSAY – Waiter

SAM RAYMONS – Minstrel

FIELDING SMITHEA - Messenger

Pilton, J. Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  Op.cit.  pp. 51, 212.

Smithea is described as being a messenger in the government offices.

STEPHEN WHITLEY – Laundryman

MUNICIPAL EMPLOYEES

JACOB ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Colonist, February, 10, 1951.

“Early Resident of City Dies in 88th Year”.  

This article announces the death of Jacob Alexander, son of Charles and Nancy Alexander, born circa 1863.  It is reported that he worked with the City Water Works department for 22 years.

EDWARD BOYNTON

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing. op.cit, 2nd edition pp. 142.

Kilian notes that Boynton worked in the Vancouver City Works department for many years.

Newspapers

Province, February 2, 1965, p. 24.

“E. Boynton dies at 89”

This article announces the death of Edward Boynton, husband of Matilda Boynton, “Vancouver’s oldest resident (born circa 1876).  His retirement from the city works department in 1940 is mentioned.

DOUG HUDLIN

A great grandson of Nancy and Charles Alexander, who arrived in Victoria in 1858; Hudlin was born in 1922.  He worked for the city of Victoria for 30 years.

NURSES/MIDWIVES

MARY ALEXANDER

Picture File

The information accompanying the picture of Mary Alexander describes her as a midwife.

SYLIVA STARK

Books and Articles

Gould, J.  Women of British Columbia.  op.cit.  p. 72.

Sylvia Stark worked as a volunteer midwife and nurse according to this author.

UNIVERSAL BLACK CROSS NURSES

Books and Articles

Winks, R.  The Blacks in Canada.  op.cit.  p. 119.

In Vancouver during World War I, Black women of the Garvey movement are credited with the organization of a branch of the Universal Black Cross nurses, which received the commendation of Lord Byng of Vimy.

PAINTERS/PLASTERS

ELISON DOWDY

PETER J. LESTER

ADOLPHUS RICHARDS

Manuscripts

Pilton, J. Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  Op.cit.  pp. 209-212..

Pilton lists Dowdy and Lester as painters.  Richards is listed as a plasterer.

POLICEMAN

GENERAL INFORMATION

Several authors note that the first police force appointed in B.C. in 1858 initially included Blacks.  Because white miners did not accept the authority of the Black constables, the Government withdrew the Blacks after less than two months of service. 

For details on individual policemen, both colonial and contemporary refer to “The Military and Police”.  

PROSPECTORS/MINERS

GENERAL INFORMATION

Books and Articles

Berley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent.,   op.cit.  p. 109.

The author notes that in 1858 Black miners were in Hope and Yale, and in the Cariboo at Horsefly Creek, Keithley Creek and Williams Creek.  He also mentions the Black Harvey-Dixon Mining Company.

Lyons, C.P.  Milestones on Vancouver Island.  . op.cit.  p. 277.

At Leechtown, a Black man found a gold nugget worth $75.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit.  p. 153.

Pilton records the presence of Black miners in 1862 in the Cariboo and Williams Creek.  The Harvey-Dixon Co. is mentioned as a mining company partly owned by Blacks.

Newspapers

Seattle Times, October 8, 1961. – Negro File

“Black Miners Settled in B.C. Island near Victoria”.

This article states that the 600 Blacks who first came to Victoria, came for the purpose of mining.

HORSEFLY CREEK

A company of Black miners is reported as being involved in shaft mining in 1863 at Horsefly Creek.

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (1st edition).  , op.cit.  p. 89.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit.  p. 153.

Newspapers

Colonist, September 19, 1863.

“Horsefly Creek”

This article contains information that seven out of the ten workers of the Horsefly Creek Company were Black and that they made $3 - $6 daily.

CHARLES ALEXANDER

Books and Articles

Gould, J.  Women of British Columbia. , op.cit.  p. 91.

Alexander is mentioned in this work as a prospector in the Cariboo who successfully struck gold.

Winks, R.  The Blacks in Canada. , op.cit.  p. 277.

Alexander is noted here as going to the Fraser River to mine.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit.  p. 67.

Pilton states that Charles Alexander arrived in Victoria in July 1858, and left soon after for the gold country until 1861.

STEPHEN ANDERSON

ROBERT HALLEY

JOHN ROBERT GISCOME

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  p. 125.

The author mentions that Giscome was a mining partner of Henry McDame.  Giscome Canyon, Giscome Portage, and Giscome Rapids were all named after John Robert Giscome. 

JAMES SCOTT

WILLIAM WILBY

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit.  p. 208-213.

These men are listed as miners in the section of this work listing Black settlers and their occupations.

SAMUEL BOOTH

This prospector is noted in several sources as having found the big nugget at Leech River near Victoria that precipitated the 1864 gold rush.  He is also mentioned as having formed the Industry Company with three other black men, John Tyril, George Munro and George Dyer, to pan for gold near Sooke.

Books and Articles

Bertley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent, op.cit. p. 107.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  p.83, 125.

There is a picture of Booth on p. 83 courtesy of the B.C. Archives.

Perry, M. Eugene.  A Visit to Leechtown.  United Empire Review. Vol. 19, No. 1928. (PA)

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit.  p. 171-174.

Picture of Samuel Booth appears on p. 172.

Picture File

There is one picture of Samuel Booth.

ARTHUR CLORE

Books and Articles

Assante, Nadine.  History of Terrace.  , op.cit.  p. 53.

Arthur Clore, an inhabitant of Kitselas near Terrace, is described as a prospector around that area and Cooper City for many years.  He died in Terrace in 1968.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  p.140, 141.

The author writes that in 1910, prospector Arthur Clore began a long career in the northern interior.  Clore Mountain and Clore River are named after him.

Newspapers

Northern Sentinel, September 8, 1960. P. 4. – Clore, Arthur File.

“I’ve stood on my own two feet so long ..” by Stan Rough.

This article reports an interview with Arthur Clore who describes his life since arriving in Prince Rupert 1910.  He first worked as a logger and later as a miner in 1932.  He was also a placer miner and later prospected for gold as well as copper.

Terrace Herald, January 30, 1963, p.4.

“Old Timer’s Story As Displayed at Chamber of Commerce Convention”.

The article reports the story of Arthur Clore since he arrived in British Columbia.

Terrace Herald, July 24, 1968. P. 2.

“Veteran Prospector Arthur Clore dies”.

This insertion reports the death of Clore on July 23, at the age of 81.

LOWHEE JACK

Books and Articles

Lindsay, F.W. Cariboo Yarns, Quesnel, B.C. 1962, p. 15. (PA)

The description of Lowhee Jack state that he was a miner in the Cariboo district.  On a creek named Lowhee, he had a mine which he worked during the summer seasons and he returned to California during the cold weather.

Winks, R.  The Blacks in Canada. , op.cit.  p. 277.

Winks states that Lowhee Jack was a well-known Cariboo figure who was later murdered in Victoria.

WILLIAM AND ELIAS JONES

Books and Articles

Flucke, A.F.  Early Days on Saltspring Island., op.cit.  p. 175.

The author states that William and Elias Jones were to the Barkerville mining district.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  pp. 38, 75, 84, 92, 123.

Kilian notes that William and Elias Jones came to the mainland of B.C. from Ohio during the fold rush.  They were both graduates of Oberlin College as well as their brother John Craven.  Kilian also mentions that William was among the first miners to apply “hydraulic” techniques to gold mining, using jets of water to blast hillsides into a slurry from which gold could be extracted.  William Jones spent the rest of his life as a dentist and mining investor in the Cariboo and Elias eventually returned to the U.S.

Roberts, E.  Saltspring Saga. ,op.cit. p. 16.

According to Roberts, William and Elias Jones were miners in the Cariboo goldfields.

HENRY McDAME

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  pp. 124-125.

Henry McDame, a prospector in 1870, discovered a rich gold creek in the Omeneca, initially called “Nigger Creek – later named after McDame.  Another gold discovery was made by McDame 90 miles from Deas Lake in 1874, and with a group of predominately Black miners he formed the Charity Company.

The Beaver.  British Columbia Posts (Hudson’s Bay Co.), August 24, 1942.  P. 395.

This insertion mentions McDame’s Creek Post as being named after a Black miner.

Newspapers

Colonist, July 28, 1974.  Pp. 4 – 5.

“Yes!  B.C. Is Celebrating Another Centennial”. Buy Lyn Hancock.

This article credits McDame with bringing life to an area known as Centreville, a town which housed numerous miners in the 1870’s.  Previously recorded history of McDame’s life in the area is mentioned briefly. McDame Creek, is reported here, as producing the largest all-gold nugget ever recovered in B.C.

JOHN EDMUND STARK

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  pp. 92, 132-133.

John Stark is mentioned by the author as being a noted prospector.   

Newspapers

Colonist, October 11, 1940.

“Alice Arm Pioneer Dies At Age 71”.

In this article announcing the death of John Stark, “the oldest resident of Alice Arm”, it is noted that he arrived in 1900 and prospected and owned several mining properties.

Stewart Sentinel, April 17, 1974, p. 10 – Stark, John E. File; April 24, 1974, p. 7.

“Stewart Mining Town That Would Not Die – Two Colourful Pioneers” by O. Hutchings.

This two-part article describes some of the claims staked by John Stark.   He stayed in the Stewart district then moved to Alice Arm when the Dolly Varden Mine became the big silver producer.

LOUIS STARK

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  p. 96.

Kilian writes that Louis Stark wrote to the colonial land agent to advise that he had moved his claim to a safer site in Ganges and that Sylvia recalled Louis working a claim on Vancouver Island with a black man named Overton but this has not been confirmed.

L.J. WATSON

Manuscripts

Black Community Survey. , op.cit.  p. 6.

L.J. ‘Lucky’ Watson is reported as having made the first major copper strike at Jedway in the Queen Charlotte Islands.            

DANIEL WILLIAMS

Books and Articles

Bowes, G. (Ed) Peace River Chronicles. , op.cit. , pp. 77-79, 93-97, 119, 143-148.

Dan Williams is noted in this work as a gold prospector along the Peace River.  He was a miner in the summer and a trapper in the winter.  Williams’ claim to the land on which he lived at Fort St. John in his battle with the Hudsons Bay Company in 1873 is described.  There is mention of Williams as a guide for a miner on a trip down the Peace River in 1872, and an account is included of his trial in 1874 for aiming and discharging a gun at another man.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing (2nd edition).  , op.cit.  p. 9, 125-126. 6.

The author mentions that Williams was a partner of Henry McDame and was a successful trapper and prospector.  Kilian also writes about Williams disputes with the Hudsons Bay Company.

MacGregor, James G.  The Land of the Twelve Foot Davis.   Edmonton: Publisher Institute of Applied Arts Ltd., 1952, pp. 10, 13, 186-188.  (PA)

Dan Williams’ arrival in the Peace River area as a gold seeker is mentioned.  He is described as one if the “hardy souls” who stayed on after the gold rush was over.  Previously recorded history about Dan Williams and an account of his death as told by an old opponent, as well as a speculative version, is included.       

Canada West Magazine, Volume 6 #3, Summer 1976.  Pp. 13 – 15 (PA)

This magazine carries an article about Dan Williams but the material was unavailable at the time of publication (of the 1st edition of the catalogue).

Newspapers

Alaska Highway Newspaper, April 23, 1957 – William, Dan File May 16, 1957.

“With Gun and Bible a Black Man named Dan Williams Ruled Peace River.”

PUBLIC SERVANTS

Detailed information on politicians, Emery Barnes, Rosemary Brown and Mifflin Gibbs can be found in the section Politics.

CHARLES ALEXANDER

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.   , op.cit. , 1st edition p. 151; 2nd edition p. 128.

Kilian notes that Charles Alexander was a school trustee in Saanich for many years.

JOHN BRAITHWAITE

When elected in 1972, John Braithwaite topped the polls and served as a North Vancouver alderman until 1976.

Books and Articles

Bertley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent. , op.cit. , p. 277.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing. , op.cit. , 1st edition p. 167, 169; 2ND edition pp 145.

Newspapers

Newspaper Index.

As stated in the 1st edition of this catalogue:  There are eight cards (each with an average of six entries) listing several articles pertaining to John Braithwaite which have appeared in Vancouver and Victoria newspapers from June 1958 to October 1977.

ABRAHAM COPELAND

Several authors note that Abraham Copeland was elected to the first three-man school board on Saltspring Island in 1869.

Books and Articles

Flucke, A.F.  Early Days on Saltspring Island. , op.cit. , p. 194.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  , op.cit, 1st edition p, 43; 2nd edition p. 97.

Winks, R.  The Blacks in Canada. , op.cit. , p. 278.

Manuscripts

Irby, C.  Black Settlers on Saltspring Island in the Nineteenth Century. , op.cit. , p. 10.

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 135.

JOHN CRAVEN JONES

HENRY WILKINSON ROBINSON

It is noted in several works that John C. Jones and Henry W. Robinson were elected to the first seven man Municipal Council on Saltspring Island in 1873.

Books and Articles

Flucke, A.F. Early Days on Saltspring Island. , op.cit. , pp. 194-199.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit.  1st edition p. 114  

Roberts, E. Saltspring Saga.  op.cit.  pp. 61-63.

Winks, R.  The Blacks in Canada.  op.cit.  p. 278.

Manuscripts

Irby. C.  Black Settlers on Saltspring Island in the Nineteenth Century.  op.cit.  p. 10.

JOHN FREEMONT SMITH

In Kamloops; in 1902 Smith became a secretary of the local Board of Trade, a year later he was elected Alderman which he held for four years. In 1908 he was appointed City Assessor.  

Books and Articles

Balf. M.  Kamloops: A History of the District to 1914.   Op.cit. pp.80, 109, 116, 120.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit.  1st edition p. 154, 2nd edition p. 134.

FIELDING SPOTTS

Fielding Spotts served as a school trustee for many years in Saanich.

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing,  op,cit.  1st edition p. 151; 2nd edition p. 129.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 68. 

ROAD CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

Bartolo, O.  Blacks in Canada “1608 to now”, op.cit.

The author notes that nearly one-third of the 1942 construction crew, working on the road from Dawson Creek, B.C. to Big Delta, Alaska, were Black.

Bertley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent. op.cit.  p. 100.

Blacks are mentioned here as helping in 1859 to construct the Harrison River Valley Road which led to the Upper Fraser country.

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 151.

Pilton states that some Blacks were among the Harrison River Valley Road construction workers.

SOCIAL WORKERS

EMERY BARNES

Emery Barnes has a degree in Social Work from the University of British Columbia.  He was Director of children’s and teenagers’ programs at Gordon Neighborhood House in Vancouver; Director of Grandview Community Centre; Supervisor of Social Training at Haney Correctional Institute; and group worker at the Narcotic Addition Foundation.

Books and Articles

Bertley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent. op.cit.  p. 310.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing,  op,cit.  1st edition p. 169; 2nd edition p. 145.

JOHN BRAITHWAITE

John Braithwaite has a degree in social work from the University of Toronto.  In 1956 he began work at the North Shore Neighborhood House in Vancouver and one year later became Executive Director.  He was involved with the growth of the North Shore Neighborhood House until elected alderman in 1972.

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing,  op,cit.  1st edition p. 169; 2nd edition p. 145.

ROSEMARY BROWN

In 1964 Rosemary Brown received her degree in social work from the University of British Columbia.  During her career as a social worker she worked with the Montreal Children’s Hospital, the Children’s Aid Society of B.C. and with epileptic and cerebral palsy patients at the Vancouver Neurological Society.

 Books and Articles

Bertley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent. op.cit.  p. 308.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing,  op,cit.  1st edition p. 169-170; 2nd edition p. 145.

STOREOWNERS/SHOPKEEPERS

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 208, 209, 211

Pilton includes the names of the following persons in his list of Black settlers:

JOHN ARCHER - Groceries and provisions merchant.

JOHN BALDWIN - greengrocer

WILLIAM BROWN - merchant

PARIS CARTER - Grocer and debt collector

A.H. FRANCIS - Groceries and provisions merchant

THOMAS PALMER FREEMAN - Store keeper 

LESTER AND GIBBS

Peter Lester and Mifflin Gibbs were partners in a general store in Victoria in the 1860’s.  The establishment is noted in several works and some sources state that their store was the first large mercantile business in B.C. other than the Hudson’s Bay Company.

Books and Articles

Bertley, L.  Black Tiles in the Mosaic, op.cit.

Berley, L.  Canada and its People of African Descent.  op.cit.  pp. 99, 104.

Gould, Jan. Women of British Columbia,  op.cit.  p. 91.

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit.  1st edition p. 45; 2nd edition p. 37.

Ormsby, M.  British Columbia: A History.  Op.cit.  p. 139.

Winks, R. The Blacks in Canada.  op.cit.  p. 274.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 208, 209.

Newspapers

Lester & Gibbs advertised their wholesale and retail store continuously and one example can be seen in the Gazette, March 22, 1859.

Picture File

There is one picture of Mifflin Gibbs and of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Lester.

GEORGE HENRY MATTHEWS

MATTHEW FRED MONET

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 211.

Pilton records that Matthews was a merchant and Monet was a fruiterer. 

WELLINGTON DELANEY MOSES

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit.  1st edition p. 90-91; 2nd edition p.75, 131.

Moses opened a dry goods store and barbershop in the Cariboo district in the 1860s after moving from Victoria.

Winks, R. The Blacks in Canada.  op.cit.  p. 276.

Winks mentions that Moses was a money lender.

Manuscripts

Moses, W.D.  Accounts, Diaries, Day Book.  1869, 1873-8. (PA)

These notations by Moses record his business affairs and activities in Barkerville from 1860 – 1870’s.

Newspapers

Colonist, May 30, 1965.

“Nugget Tiepin was Murder Clue” by Cecil Clark.

The article reports some of the information gleaned from Moses’s diaries and account book.

Kamloops Sentinel, May 21, 1929.

The Black Barber of Barkerville

The article reprints some of the names and purchases of Moses’s customers recorded in his diaries and account books.

NATHAN POINTER

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit.  1st edition p. 46; 2nd edition p.38.

Nathan Pointer is described as owning a large clothing store in Victoria.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , pp. 48,211.

Pointer is mentioned as having been a partner of Gibbs while in the U.S.  In Victoria he had one of the largest clothing stores.

Newspapers

Colonist, January 15, 1865.

Nathan Pointer’s advertisement as a supplier of “gentlemen’s furnishing goods” appears in this issue of the newspaper.

HENRY ROBINSON

CHARLES HUMPHREY SCOTT

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 211.

Pilton records Robinson as being in groceries and provisions as well as being a farmer, Scott is reported as being a grocer.

ARTHUR WILLIS SULLIVAN

Books and Manuscripts

 Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit. 1st edition p. 155; 2nd edition pp. 134-135.

Arthur Sullivan is reported as being the first merchant in the mid-1870’s in Granville, presently known as Vancouver.  Sullivan ran a grocery store on Water Street as early as 1876.

TAILORS

ASHBURY BUHLER

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 200.

Buhler’s occupation is listed here as a tailor, as well as proprietor of a clothing and variety store.

J.T. PIERRE

Books and Articles

Kilian, C.  Go Do Some Great Thing.  op.cit. 1st edition p. 149; 2nd edition p. 126.  

Pierre is reported as being a successful tailor in Victoria in 1869 - 1870

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871.  , op.cit. , p. 210.

Picture of Mrs. J.T. Pierre is on page 71.

Picture File.

There is a picture of Pierre working in a tailor shop on Fort Street near Blanshard St. in Victoria. There are also pictures of Mrs. J.T. Pierre and her son, Samuel.

TEACHERS

General Information

There is substantial details in the section Education about the Education System and Teachers. The specific teachers are Norman E. Alexander, Barbara Howard, John Craven Jones, Frederick Lester and Emma Stark.

TRANSPORT/TRANSPORTATION WORKERS

FREDERICK D. ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Colonist, May 13, 1973.  P. 4.

“The Alexander Family” by Margaret Belford.

It is reported that Frederick Alexander was one of the first tally-jo drivers in Victoria.  He also drove a hack at night.

JOHN ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Colonist, May 19, 1955, p. 15.

Times, May 18, 1955, p. 2.

These articles report the death of John Alexander at the age of 80.  He is noted as having been a teamster and logger throughout his life.

NORMAN ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Colonist, August 28, 1968, p. 10.

Times, August 27, 1968, p, 13.

These articles announce the death of Norman Alexander at the age of 69.  He was born in Victoria and worked as a truck driver and logger.  His hobbies included hunting, fishing, playing baseball and racing pigeons.

THOMAS ALEXANDER

Newspapers

Colonist, July 13, 1926.

“Pioneer Coloured Resident Passes”

Sun, July 12, 1926.

“Pioneer Resident Dies at Victoria”.

Times, July 12, 1926.

“Late T. Alexander ws Pioneer here”.

Times, July 14, 1926.

A picture of T. Alexander accompanies this brief insertion.

These articles report the death of Thomas Alexander at the age of 67.  It is noted that he was in the business of general trucking or haulage.

LIST OF TRANSPORTATION WORKERS - PILTON

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit. , pp. 208 – 213. 

Pilton lists the name and occupations of the following men:

AUGUSTUS CHRISTOPHER - porter

JOHN DUNLOP - livery stable worker

WILLIAM GANT- teamster

WILLIAM GLASCO - teamster

ISAAC GOHIGGAN - teamster    Note:  The original catalogue listed as ISSAC GOLIGGAN

GEORGE HOBBS - teamster

THOMAS JACKSON - drayman

ARCHY LEE - porter and drayman

JOHN LEWIS - porter

T. DEVINE MATHEWS - carrier

TIMOTHY ROBERTS - drayman

JAMES SAMPSON -  teamster

ANGUSTUS TRAVERS - porter

FRANK COLLINS

Newspapers

Sun:

March 30, 1959.  P. 3.  “Negro Bus Driver Race-Group Head” by Mac Reynolds. This is a report on Frank Collins, a bus driver and formerly a railway porter, becoming President of he British Columbia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (BCAACP).

February 3, 1960.  p. 25. “Anti-Semitism Called Threat to World Peace”. Collins, in his capacity as President of the BCAACP is reported as speaking out against world anti-Semitism.

August 27, 1969, p. 76. “Bus-only Lanes Urged for the City”. Collins in his role as business agent and representative for the Amalgamated Transit Union discusses Vancouver city traffic problems.

STEPHEN FARRINGTON

Books and Articles

Kilian, C. Go Do Some Great Thing. , op.cit. , 1st edition p. 83; 2nd edition p. 133; 2nd edition p. 68-69.

AARON LEWIS NEWBY

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit. , pp. 210. 

Pilton lists Newby as being a sailor.

ED PHILIPS

Manuscripts

Potter, H. & Hill, D. Negroes in Canada 1628 – 1965. , op.cit. , p. 85.

In this work the authors cited an article that appeared in the May 17, 1960 Montreal Star Magazine which carried a large picture and story of Ed Philips a Black instructor at Canada’s only school for helicopter pilots in Penticton, B.C.

CURTIS M. RUFFIN

Books and Articles

Porter, M.  Three Thousand Nights on Wheels.  MacLean’s Magazine. , March 15, 1949. (VPL)

The private and working life of Ruffin as a railway porter between Vancouver and Toronto for 20 years which “adds up to 3,000 nights on wheels” is described in this article.

RICHARD STOKES

Books and Articles

Kilian, C. Go Do Some Great Thing. , op.cit. , 1st edition p. 149 with image between pp. 48-49; 2nd edition p. 126 with image. 

A picture of Richard Stokes appears in these works where he is described as having kept a livery stable on Broughton Street in Victoria in 1870.

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit. , p. 71.   

Picture File

There is 1 picture of Richard Stokes 

ROY WILLIAMS

Books and Articles

Tulloch, H.  Black Canadians: A Long Line of Fighters. , op.cit. , pp. 125-130.

Tulloch gives a short biography of Williams, a CPR porter transferred from Calgary to Vancouver in 1960.

WRITERS/JOURNALISTS

JOHN ANDERSON

Manuscripts

Pilton, J.  Negro Settlement in British Columbia 1858 – 1871. , op.cit. , p. 168.   

John Anderson is noted as “the negro Cariboo correspondent” during the gold rush for a Black newspaper in San Francisco.

TRUMAN GREEN

Truman Green graduated from UBC in l968 with a BA in English Literature and American History.

Works by Truman Green

Green, T.  A Credit to Your Race.  Self-published in 1973; republished in 2011 as part of the City of Vancouver’s 125th anniversary.

A Credit to Your Race is a short, semi-autobiographical novel about the interracial relationship of two teenagers in 1950s Surrey, British Columbia.